ମୁଖ୍ୟ ସୂଚୀ ଦେଖିବେ

ଥୋରିଅମ, ପ୍ରାକୃତିକ ଭାବେ ମିଳୁଥିବା ଏକ ତେଜସ୍କ୍ରିୟ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ ଯାହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ Thପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୯୦ ଅଟେ ।

Thorium,  90Th
Thorium sample 0.1g.jpg
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକthorium, Th
Appearancesilvery, often with black tarnish
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈθɔəriəm/
THOHR-ee-əm
Thorium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
Ce

Th

(Uqb)
actiniumthoriumprotactinium
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z)90
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକgroup n/a, f-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟperiod 7
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର  actinide
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (Ar)232.03806
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ[Rn] 6d2 7s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥାsolid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ2115 K ​(1842 °C, ​3348 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ5061 K ​(4788 °C, ​8650 °F)
Density near r.t.11.7 g/cm3
Heat of fusion13.81 kJ/mol
Heat of 514 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.230 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2633 2907 3248 3683 4259 5055
Atomic properties
Oxidation states4, 3, 2, 1
(weakly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.3
Atomic radiusempirical: 179 pm
Covalent radius206±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for thorium
Speed of sound thin rod2490 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion11.0 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity54.0 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity147 n Ω·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[୧]
Young's modulus79 GPa
Shear modulus31 GPa
Bulk modulus54 GPa
Poisson ratio0.27
Mohs hardness3.0
Vickers hardness350 MPa
Brinell hardness400 MPa
CAS Number7440-29-1
ଇତିହାସ
ଆବିଷ୍କାରJöns Jakob Berzelius (1829)
Most stable isotopes of thorium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
228Th trace 1.9116 y α 5.520 224Ra
229Th trace 7340 y α 5.168 225Ra
230Th trace 75380 y α 4.770 226Ra
231Th trace 25.5 h β 0.39 231Pa
232Th 100% 1.405×1010 y α 4.083 228Ra
234Th trace 24.1 d β 0.27 234Pa
| references

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ଆଧାରସମ୍ପାଦନ କରନ୍ତୁ

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.

ସହାୟକ ଗ୍ରନ୍ଥସମ୍ପାଦନ କରନ୍ତୁ

  • Wickleder, Mathias S. (2006). "Thorium". In Morss, Lester R.; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean (eds.). The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 1-4020-3555-1. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  • Martin, Richard (2012). Super Fuel: Thorium, the Green Energy Source for the Future (1st ed.). Palgrave MacMillan. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-230-11647-4 (hardback) Check |isbn= value: invalid character (help).
  • Hargraves, Robert (July 25, 2012). Thorium: Energy Cheaper than Coal. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. p. 482. ISBN 978-1478161295.

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