ମୁଖ୍ୟ ସୂଚୀ ଦେଖିବେ

ଗାଲିଅମ ହେଉଛି ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ ଯାହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ Gaପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୩୧ ଅଟେ ।

Gallium,  31Ga
Gallium crystals.jpg
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକgallium, Ga
Appearancesilver-white
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈɡæliəm/ GAL-ee-əm
Gallium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
Al

Ga

In
zincgalliumgermanium
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z)31
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକgroup 13, p-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟperiod 4
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର  post-transition metal
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (±) (Ar)69.723(1)
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ[Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p1
per shell
2, 8, 18, 3
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥାsolid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ302.9146 K ​(29.7646 °C, ​85.5763 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ2477 K ​(2204 °C, ​3999 °F)
Density near r.t.5.91 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.6.095 g/cm3
Heat of fusion5.59 kJ/mol
Heat of 254 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.86 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1310 1448 1620 1838 2125 2518
Atomic properties
Oxidation states3, 2, 1amphoteric oxide
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.81
energies
(more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 135 pm
Covalent radius122±3 pm
Van der Waals radius187 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureorthorhombic
Orthorhombic crystal structure for gallium
Speed of sound thin rod2740 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion18 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity40.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity270 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic
Young's modulus9.8 GPa
Poisson ratio0.47
Mohs hardness1.5
Brinell hardness60 MPa
CAS Number7440-55-3
ଇତିହାସ
PredictionDmitri Mendeleev (1871)
ଆବିଷ୍କାରLecoq de Boisbaudran (1875)
First isolationLecoq de Boisbaudran (1875)
Most stable isotopes of gallium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
69Ga 60.11% 69Ga is stable with 38 neutrons
71Ga 39.89% 71Ga is stable with 40 neutrons
| references

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