ମୁଖ୍ୟ ସୂଚୀ ଦେଖିବେ

ବୋରନ ହେଉଛି ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ । ଏହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ Bପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୫ ଅଟେ ।

Boron,  5B
Boron mNACTEC.jpg
ସାଧାରଣ ଗୁଣ
ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକboron, B
Appearanceblack-brown
ଉଚ୍ଚାରଣ /ˈbɔərɒn/
Boron in the periodic table
Hydrogen (other non-metal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (other non-metal)
Nitrogen (other non-metal)
Oxygen (other non-metal)
Fluorine (halogen)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (other non-metal)
Sulfur (other non-metal)
Chlorine (halogen)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (other non-metal)
Bromine (halogen)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (halogen)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanoid)
Cerium (lanthanoid)
Praseodymium (lanthanoid)
Neodymium (lanthanoid)
Promethium (lanthanoid)
Samarium (lanthanoid)
Europium (lanthanoid)
Gadolinium (lanthanoid)
Terbium (lanthanoid)
Dysprosium (lanthanoid)
Holmium (lanthanoid)
Erbium (lanthanoid)
Thulium (lanthanoid)
Ytterbium (lanthanoid)
Lutetium (lanthanoid)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (halogen)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinoid)
Thorium (actinoid)
Protactinium (actinoid)
Uranium (actinoid)
Neptunium (actinoid)
Plutonium (actinoid)
Americium (actinoid)
Curium (actinoid)
Berkelium (actinoid)
Californium (actinoid)
Einsteinium (actinoid)
Fermium (actinoid)
Mendelevium (actinoid)
Nobelium (actinoid)
Lawrencium (actinoid)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
-

B

Al
berylliumboroncarbon
ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z)5
ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକgroup 13, p-block
ପର୍ଯ୍ୟାୟperiod 2
ମୌଳିକ ପ୍ରକାର  metalloid
ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (±) (Ar)10.81(1)
ଇଲେକ୍‌ଟ୍ରୋନ୍ ବିନ୍ୟାସ[He] 2s2 2p1
per shell
2, 3
ଭୌତିକ ଗୁଣ
ଅବସ୍ଥାsolid
ଗଳନାଙ୍କ2349 K ​(2076 °C, ​3769 °F)
ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ4200 K ​(3927 °C, ​7101 °F)
Density when liquid, at m.p.2.08 g/cm3
Heat of fusion50.2 kJ/mol
Heat of 480 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity11.087 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2348 2562 2822 3141 3545 4072
Atomic properties
Oxidation states3, 2, 1[୧] ​mildly acidic oxide
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.04
energies
(more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 90 pm
Covalent radius84±3 pm
Van der Waals radius192 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurerhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for boron
Speed of sound thin rod16,200 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion(β form) 5–7[୨] µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity27.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity~106  Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[୩]
Mohs hardness~9.5
CAS Number7440-42-8
ଇତିହାସ
ଆବିଷ୍କାରJoseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard[୪] (30 June 1808)
First isolationHumphry Davy[୫] (9 July 1808)
Most stable isotopes of boron
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
10B 19.9(7)%* 10B is stable with 5 neutrons[୬]
11B 80.1(7)%* 11B is stable with 6 neutrons[୬]
  • Boron-10 content may be as low as 19.1% and as
    high as 20.3% in natural samples. Boron-11 is
    the remainder in such cases.
    [୭]
| references

ବିଷୟସୂଚୀ

ଇତିହାସ ଓ ନାମକରଣସମ୍ପାଦନ କରନ୍ତୁ

  • ଆବିଷ୍କାର- ସାର ହମ୍ପ୍ରେ ଡେଭି, ଜୋସେଫ ଲୁଇସ୍‌ ଗେ ଲୁକାସ,ଲୁଇସ୍‌ ଜାକସ୍‌ ଥେନାର୍ଡ୍‌
  • କେବେ-୧୮୨୮
  • କେଉଂଠି- ଇଁଲଣ୍ଡ/ଫ୍ରାନସ୍‌
  • ଉତ୍ପତି- ବୋରାକ୍ସ ଓ କାର୍ବନରୁ

ଧର୍ମସମ୍ପାଦନ କରନ୍ତୁ

ସମସ୍ଥାନିକସମ୍ପାଦନ କରନ୍ତୁ

10B [5 neutrons] Abundance: 19.9% Stable with 5 neutron 11B [6 neutrons] Abundance: 80.1% Stable with 6 neutron

ରାସାୟନିକ ଯୌଗିକସମ୍ପାଦନ କରନ୍ତୁ

  • ବୋରାକ୍ସ Na2B4O7 - 10H2O ,
  • ବୋରିକ ଏସିଡ୍‌ H3BO3 ,
  • ସୋଡିୟମ୍ ବୋରୋହାଇଡ୍ରାଈଡ୍‌ NaBH4 ,
  • ରେନିୟମ ଡାଇବୋରାଇଡ୍‌ ReB2 ,
  • ସୋଡିୟମ ପର୍‌ବୋରେଟ୍‌ NaBO3 ,

Reactions with air At higher temperatures, boron does burn in air to form boron(III) oxide, B2O3.

 4B + 3O2(g)2B2O3(s) 

Reactions with halogens Boron reacts vigorously with fluorine, chlorine, and bromine to form boron(III) trihalides.

 2B(s) + 3F2(g)2BF3(g) 
 2B(s) + 3Cl2(g)2BCl3(g) 
 2B(s) + 3Br2(g)2BBr3(g) 

Reactions with acids Crystalline boron does not react with boiling hydrochloric acid (HCl) or boiling hydrofluoric acid (HF). Powdered boron oxidizes slowly when treated with concentrated nitric acid, HNO3.

ଅବସ୍ଥିତିସମ୍ପାଦନ କରନ୍ତୁ

କେର୍ନାଇଟ୍ ନାମକ ଓରରୁ ଉତ୍ପତି (Na2B4O7.10H2O).

ଆକଳନ କରାଯାଇଛି ଯେ ପୃଥିବୀରେ ଓର୍‌ ଆକାରରେ ଗଛିତ ଥିବା ବୋରୋନର ପରିମାଣ ପ୍ରାୟ 1010 କିଲୋଗ୍ରାମ | ଆମେରିକା, ତିବତ, ଚିଲି ଓ ତୁର୍କୀ ମୂଖ୍ୟ ଉପ୍ତାଦନକାରି ଦେଶ | ବହୁଳତା:

  • ବିଶ୍ୱ: 0.001 ppm
  • ସୂର୍ଯ୍ୟ: 0.002 ppm
  • ପୃଥିବୀ ପୃଷ୍ଠ : 950 ppm
  • ସମୁଦ୍ର: 4.41 ppm
  • ମାନବ ଶରୀର

700 ppb by weight 410 ppb by atoms

ଉତ୍ପାଦନସମ୍ପାଦନ କରନ୍ତୁ

ବ୍ୟବହାରସମ୍ପାଦନ କରନ୍ତୁ

  • ବୋରାକ୍ସ Na2B4O7 - 10H2O ,ସାବୁନ, ଡିଟର୍‌ଜେଣ୍ଟ, କୀଟନାଶକ ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତିରେ ବ୍ୟବହାର ହୋଇଥାଏ |
  • ବୋରିକ ଏସିଡ୍‌ H3BO3 ଆଣବିକ ଶକ୍ତି କେନ୍ଦ୍ରରେ ଫିସିଅନ୍‌ ପ୍ରକ୍ରିୟାକୁ ନିୟନ୍ତ୍ରଣ କରିବାରେ, ଆଣ୍ଟିସେପଟିକ, କୀଟନାଶକ ଓ ଅଗ୍ନିର ପ୍ରଜ୍ୱଳନଶୀଳତାକୁ ହ୍ରାସ କରିବାରେ ବ୍ୟବହାର ହୋଇଥାଏ |
  • ସୋଡିୟମ୍ ବୋରୋହାଇଡ୍ରାଈଡ୍‌ NaBH4 ଔଷଧ ଓ ରାସାୟନିକ ଶିଳ୍ପରେ ବ୍ୟବହୃତ ହୋଇଥାଏ |
  • ରେନିୟମ ଡାଇବୋରାଇଡ୍‌ ReB2 ହିରା କାଟିବାରେ ବ୍ୟବହାର ହୋଇଥାଏ |

ଆହୁରି ଦେଖନ୍ତୁସମ୍ପାଦନ କରନ୍ତୁ

ଟୀକାସମ୍ପାଦନ କରନ୍ତୁ

  1. Zhang, K.Q.; Guo, B.; Braun, V.; Dulick, M.; Bernath, P.F. (1995). "Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of BF and AIF" (PDF). J. Molecular Spectroscopy. 170: 82. Bibcode:1995JMoSp.170...82Z. doi:10.1006/jmsp.1995.1058.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. Holcombe Jr., C. E.; Smith, D. D.; Lorc, J. D.; Duerlesen, W. K.; Carpenter; D. A. (October 1973). "Physical-Chemical Properties of beta-Rhombohedral Boron". High Temp. Sci. 5 (5): 349–57.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. Lide, David R. (ed.) (2000). Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF). CRC press. ISBN 0849304814.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  4. Gay Lussac, J.L. and Thenard, L.J. (1808) "Sur la décomposition et la recomposition de l'acide boracique," Annales de chimie [later: Annales de chemie et de physique], vol. 68, pp. 169–174.
  5. Davy H (1809). "An account of some new analytical researches on the nature of certain bodies, particularly the alkalies, phosphorus, sulphur, carbonaceous matter, and the acids hitherto undecomposed: with some general observations on chemical theory". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 99: 33–104.
  6. ୬.୦ ୬.୧ "Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
  7. Szegedi, S.; Váradi, M.; Buczkó, Cs. M.; Várnagy, M.; Sztaricskai, T. (1990). "Determination of boron in glass by neutron transmission method". Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Letters. 146 (3): 177. doi:10.1007/BF02165219.

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