ବୃହତ୍ ବ୍ରିଟେନୀୟ ତଥା ଉତ୍ତର ଆୟାର୍ଲ୍ଯାଣ୍ଡୀୟ ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ,[୭] [note ୧୦] ତଥା ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ, ଇଉରୋପୀୟ ମୂଳ ଭୂଖଣ୍ଡର ପଶ୍ଚିମ ଉପକୂଳରେ ଅବସ୍ଥିତ ଏକ ସାର୍ବଭୌମ ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ର ବା ରାଷ୍ଟ୍ରସଂଘ । ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ଗ୍ରେଟ ବ୍ରିଟେନ ଦ୍ୱୀପ, ଆୟରଲ୍ୟାଣ୍ଡ ଦ୍ୱୀପର ଉତ୍ତରପୂର୍ବ ଭାଗ ଏବଂ ଅନେକ ଛୋଟ ଦ୍ୱୀପ ଅନ୍ତର୍ଭୁକ୍ତ ।[୮] ଉତ୍ତର ଆୟରଲ୍ୟାଣ୍ଡ ଓ ଆୟରଲ୍ୟାଣ୍ଡ ସାଧାରଣତନ୍ତ୍ର ମଝିରେ ସ୍ଥଳ ସୀମା ରହିଛି । ଏହାଛଡ଼ା ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟକୁ ଆଟଲାଣ୍ଟିକ ମହାସାଗର ଘେରିରହିଛି । ଏହାର ପୂର୍ବରେ ଉତ୍ତର ସମୁଦ୍ର, ଦକ୍ଷିଣରେ ଇଂରାଜୀ ପ୍ରଣାଳୀ ଏବଂ ଦକ୍ଷିଣ-ପଶ୍ଚିମରେ କେଲଟିକ ସାଗର ରହିଛି । ଏହାର ବେଳା ବିଶ୍ୱର ୧୨ତମ ଦୀର୍ଘ ଉପକୂଳ । ଆଇରିସ ସାଗର ଗ୍ରେଟ ବ୍ରିଟେନ ଏବଂ ଆୟରଲ୍ୟାଣ୍ଡକୁ ଅଲଗା କରିଥାଏ । ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟର ମୋଟ କ୍ଷେତ୍ରଫଳ ୨,୪୦,୦୦୦ ବର୍ଗ କି.ମି. ।

ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟର ଜାତୀୟ ପତାକା
ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟର ଅବସ୍ଥିତି
ବୃହତ୍ ବ୍ରିଟେନୀୟ ତଥା ଉତ୍ତର ଆୟାର୍ଲ୍ଯାଣ୍ଡୀୟ ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ
A flag featuring both cross and saltire in red, white and blue Coat of arms containing shield and crown in centre, flanked by lion and unicorn
ଜାତୀୟ ସଙ୍ଗୀତ"ପ୍ରଭୁ ରାଣୀଙ୍କ ରକ୍ଷା କରନ୍ତୁ"[note ୨]

[[File:ଛାଞ୍ଚ:Switcher |250px |center |alt=Two islands to the north-west of continental Europe. Highlighted are the larger island and the north-eastern fifth of the smaller island to the west.|ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ ର ହାଲଚାଲ]]
Location of the  ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ  (dark green)

in Europe  (dark grey)

[[File: |280px |center |alt=|ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ ର ହାଲଚାଲ]]
ରାଜଧାନୀ
(and largest city)
London
Official language
and national language
English
ଜାତି]କିମ୍ବା (2011)
ଜାତୀୟତା
Constituent countries
ପ୍ରଶାସନ Unitary parliamentary
constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Elizabeth II
 -  Prime Minister Boris Johnson
ବିଧାନମଣ୍ଡଳ Parliament  -  ଉଚ୍ଚ ସଦନ House of Lords  -  ନିମ୍ନ ସଦନ House of Commons
Formation
 -  Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 
 -  Union of the Crowns under James VI and I 24 March 1603 
 -  Acts of Union of England and Scotland 1 May 1707 
 -  Acts of Union of Great Britain and Ireland 1 January 1801 
 -  Irish Free State Constitution Act 5 December 1922 
 -  EC accession­[note ୪] 1 January 1973 
 -  Withdrawal from the European Union 31 January 2020 
କ୍ଷେତ୍ରଫଳ
 -  ସର୍ବମୋଟ ୨,୪୨,୪୯୫ km2 [୨](78th)
୯୩,୬୨୮ ବର୍ଗ ମି 
 -  ଜଳଭାଗ (%) 1.34
ଲୋକସଂଖ୍ୟା
 -  2019 ଆକଳନ increase 67,545,757[୩] (22nd)
 -  2011 census 63,182,178[୪] (22nd)
 -  ଘନତା 270.7/କିମି (50th)
୭୦୧.୨/ବର୍ଗ ମି
ମୋଟ ଘରୋଇ ଉତ୍ପାଦ (କ୍ରୟ ଶକ୍ତି ସମାନତା) 2019 ଅନୁମାନ
 -  ସର୍ବମୋଟ $3.128 trillion[୫] (9th)
 -  ମୁଣ୍ଡପିଛା ହାର ହିସାବରେ $46,781[୫] (26th)
ମୋଟ ଘରୋଇ ଉତ୍ପାଦ (ଆକଳନ କରାଯାଇଥିବା) 2019 ଆକଳନ
 -  ସର୍ବମୋଟ $2.829 trillion[୫] (6th)
 -  ପ୍ରତିଟି ମଣିଷ $42,310[୫] (20th)
ଜିନି (2017) 33.1 (33rd)
ମାନବ ବିକାଶ ସୂଚନାଙ୍କ (2017) 0.922 (14th)
ମୁଦ୍ରା Pound sterling[note ୫] (GBP)
ସମୟ ମଣ୍ଡଳ Greenwich Mean Time, WET[note ୬] (ଇଉଟିସି⁠)
 -  ଖରାଦିନ (ଡ଼ିଏସଟି) British Summer Time, WEST (ଇଉଟିସି+1)
ତିଥି ଗଠନ dd/mm/yy
yyyy-mm-dd (AD)[୬]
ରାସ୍ତାର ଏପାଖରେ ଚାଲନ୍ତୁ left[note ୭]
ଇଣ୍ଟରନେଟ ଟିଏଲଡ଼ି .uk[note ୮]
ଫୋନ କୋଡ଼ +44[note ୯]

ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ ଏକ ଏକକ ସଂସଦୀୟ ଗଣତନ୍ତ୍ର ଏବଂ ସାମ୍ବିଧାନିକ ଏକତନ୍ତ୍ର[note ୧୧][୯][୧୦] ଏହାର ଏକତନ୍ତ୍ରୀ ହେଲେ ରାଣୀ ଏଲିଜାବେଥ ଦ୍ୱିତୀୟ । ସେ ୧୯୫୨ ମସିହାରୁ ରାଜତ୍ବ କରିଆସିଛନ୍ତି । ସେ ହେଉଛନ୍ତି ବିଶ୍ୱର ସବୁଠାରୁ ଅଧିକ ସମୟ ଧରି ଶାସନ କରିଥିବା ଶାସକ ।[୧୧] ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟର ରାଜଧାନୀ ଲଣ୍ଡନ, ବିଶ୍ୱସ୍ତରୀୟ ନଗର ଓ ଆର୍ଥିକ କେନ୍ଦ୍ର ଏବଂ ଏହାର ଲୋକସଂଖ୍ୟା ୧.୦୩ କୋଟି ।[୧୨] ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟ ଚାରୋଟି ଦେଶରେ ବିଭକ୍ତ: ଇଂଲଣ୍ଡ, ସ୍କଟଲ୍ୟାଣ୍ଡ, ୱେଲ୍ସ ଏବଂ ଉତ୍ତର ଆୟରଲ୍ୟାଣ୍ଡ[୧୩] ସେମାନଙ୍କର ରାଜଧାନୀସବୁ ଯଥାକ୍ରମେ ଲଣ୍ଡନ, ଏଡିନବର୍ଗ, କାର୍ଡିଫ ଏବଂ ବେଲଫାଷ୍ଟ । ଇଂଲଣ୍ଡ ବ୍ୟତୀତ ବାକି ଦେଶଗୁଡ଼ିକର ନିଜ ସ୍ୱୟଂଶାସିତ ସରକାର ରହିଛି,[୧୪] । ପ୍ରତ୍ୟେକ ଦେଶର ଅଲଗା ଅଲଗା ଶାସନ କ୍ଷମତା ମଧ୍ୟ ରହିଛି ।[୧୫][୧୬] ଯୁକ୍ତରାଜ୍ୟର ଅନ୍ୟ ପ୍ରମୁଖ ସହରଗୁଡ଼ିକ ମଧ୍ୟରୁ ବର୍ମିଙ୍ଗହାମ, ଗ୍ଲାସଗୋ, ଲିଡ୍ସ, ଲିଭରପୁଲ ଏବଂ ମାଞ୍ଚେଷ୍ଟର ଅନ୍ୟତମ ।

ଟୀକାସମ୍ପାଦନ କରନ୍ତୁ

  1. An alternative variant of the Royal coat of arms is used in Scotland: [click to view image].
  2. There is no authorised version of the national anthem as the words are a matter of tradition; only the first verse is usually sung.[୧] No law was passed making "God Save the Queen" the official anthem. In the English tradition, such laws are not necessary; proclamation and usage are sufficient to make it the national anthem. "God Save the Queen" also serves as the Royal anthem for certain Commonwealth realms. The words Queen, she, her, used at present (in the reign of Elizabeth II), are replaced by King, he, him when the monarch is male.
  3. "This category could include Polish responses from the country specific question for Scotland which would have been outputted to ‘Other White’ and then included under ‘White’ for UK ... ‘White Africans’ may also have been recorded under ‘Other White’ and then included under ‘White’ for UK."
  4. European Union since 1993.
  5. Some of the devolved countries, Crown dependencies and British Overseas Territories issue their own sterling banknotes or currencies, or use another nation's currency. See List of British currencies for more information
  6. This excludes some of the UK's dependencies. See Time in the United Kingdom#British territories
  7. Except two overseas territories, Gibraltar and the British Indian Ocean Territory.
  8. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. Other TLDs are used regionally
  9. Excludes most overseas territories
  10. Usage is mixed. The Guardian and Telegraph use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some organisations, including the British Government, prefer to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain
  11. The United Kingdom does not have a codified constitution but an unwritten one formed of Acts of Parliament, court judgments, traditions, and conventions.What is the UK Constitution?, The Constitution Unit of UCL, retrieved 6 February 2020

ଆଧାରସମ୍ପାଦନ କରନ୍ତୁ

  1. "National Anthem". Official web site of the British Royal Family. 15 January 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  2. "Demographic Yearbook – Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2015. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. [୧]
  4. "2011 UK censuses". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
  5. ୫.୦ ୫.୧ ୫.୨ ୫.୩ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects – United Kingdom". International Monetary Fund. April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  6. See Date and time notation in the United Kingdom.
  7. United Kingdom Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (May 2017). "Toponymic guidelines for the United Kingdom". GOV.UK. 10.2 Definitions. usually shortened to United Kingdom ... The abbreviation is UK or U.K.
  8. "Definition of Great Britain in English". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 October 2014. Great Britain is the name for the island that comprises England, Scotland and Wales, although the term is also used loosely to refer to the United Kingdom.
  9. The British Monarchy, "What is constitutional monarchy?". Retrieved 17 July 2013
  10. "United Kingdom" CIA The World Factbook]. Retrieved 17 July 2013
  11. PA (13 October 2016). "Queen takes over longest reign mantle after Thailand's King Bhumibol dies". AOL (UK). Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  12. The 30 Largest Urban Agglomerations Ranked by Population Size at Each Point in Time, 1950–2030, World Urbanization Prospects, the 2014 revision Archived 18 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine., Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  13. "Countries within a country". Prime Minister's Office. 10 January 2003. Archived from the original on 9 September 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  14. "Devolution of powers to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland". United Kingdom Government. Retrieved 17 April 2013. In a similar way to how the government is formed from members from the two Houses of Parliament, members of the devolved legislatures nominate ministers from among themselves to comprise executives, known as the devolved administrations...
  15. "Fall in UK university students". BBC News. 29 January 2009.
  16. "Country Overviews: United Kingdom". Transport Research Knowledge Centre. Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2010.