"ଜଳବାୟୁ" ପୃଷ୍ଠାର ସଂସ୍କରଣ‌ଗୁଡ଼ିକ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ତଫାତ

ଅଧିକ ତ‌ଥ୍ୟ ଦିଆଗଲା
(ଜଳବାୟୁ ବିଷୟ ଲେଖାଗଲା)
 
(ଅଧିକ ତ‌ଥ୍ୟ ଦିଆଗଲା)
ଜଳବାୟୁ ([[ଇଂରାଜୀ ଭାଷା]]ରେ '''Climate''') କ‌ହିଲେ ଦୀର୍ଘ ୩୦ ବର୍ଷର ସ୍ୱାଭାବିକ ପାଣିପାଗର ହାରାହାରି ପରିସଂଖ୍ୟାନ‌କୁ ବୁଝାଏ । <ref name="IPCC-2015">{{cite web |last=Planton |first=Serge (France; editor) |title=Annex III. Glossary: IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change |url=http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg1/WG1AR5_AnnexIII_FINAL.pdf |date=2013 |format=[[PDF]] |work=[[IPCC Fifth Assessment Report]] |page=1450 |accessdate=25 July 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160524223615/http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg1/WG1AR5_AnnexIII_FINAL.pdf |archive-date=2016-05-24 |url-status=dead }}</ref><ref name="NASA-20050201">{{cite web |last1=Shepherd |first1=Dr. J. Marshall |last2=Shindell |first2=Drew |last3=O'Carroll |first3=Cynthia M. |title=What's the Difference Between Weather and Climate? |url=http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/noaa-n/climate/climate_weather.html |date=1 February 2005 |work=[[NASA]] |accessdate=13 November 2015 }}</ref> ବାୟୁମଣ୍ଡଳର ଚାପ, ଆର୍ଦ୍ରତା, ଉତ୍ତାପ, ଆର୍ଦ୍ରତା, ପବନ ଓ ପ୍ରେସିପିଟେସନ‌କୁ ହିସାବକୁ ନେଇ ଏହି ଜଳବାୟୁ ବିଷୟରେ ପୁର୍ବାନୁମାନ କରାଯାଏ । ବ୍ୟାପକ ଅର୍ଥରେ ସମୁଦ୍ର ଓ ପୃଥିବୀରେ ଥିବା ବରଫକୁ ଜଳବାୟୁ ମଣ୍ଡଳର ([[:en:climate system|climate system]]) ଅଂଶ ଭାବରେ ହିସାବକୁ ନେଲେ ଯାହା ବୁଝାଏ ତାହାକୁ ଜଳବାୟୁ କୁହାଯାଏ । <ref name="IPCC-2015" /> କୌଣସି ସ୍ଥାନର ଜଳବାୟୁ ତାହାର ଦ୍ରାଘିମା, ଇଲାକା ([[:en:terrain|terrain]]), ଉଚ୍ଚତା ([[:en:altitude|altitude]]), ଜଳ ଭଣ୍ଡାର ([[:en:body of water|water bodies]]) ଓ ତାହାର ସ୍ରୋତ ଅନୁସାରେ ପ୍ରଭାବିତ ହୁଏ ।
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More generally, the "climate" of a region is the general state of the [[climate system]] at that location at the current time.
 
ସାଧାରଣ ଭାବରେ କୌଣସି ସ୍ଥାନର ଜଳବାୟୁର ବର୍ଣ୍ଣନା କରିବାକୁ କ‌ହିଲେ ଉକ୍ତ ସମୟରେ ସେଠାକାର ଜଳବାୟୁ ସିସ୍ଟମର ଅବସ୍ଥାକୁ ବୁଝାଏ ।
Climates can be [[Climate classification|classified]] according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used classification scheme was the [[Köppen climate classification]]. The Thornthwaite system,<ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.2307/210739|url=http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/geog/801/001/www/ET/Thornthwaite48-GeogrRev.pdf|author=C. W. Thornthwaite|title=An Approach Toward a Rational Classification of Climate|journal=Geographical Review|volume=38|issue=1|pages=55–94|year=1948|jstor=210739}}</ref> in use since 1948, incorporates [[evapotranspiration]] along with temperature and precipitation information and is used in studying biological diversity and how [[climate change]] affects it. The Bergeron and [[Spatial Synoptic Classification system]]s focus on the origin of air masses that define the climate of a region.
 
ବିଭିନ୍ନ ହାରାହାରି ଅବକ୍ଷେପନ ବା ପ୍ରେସିପିଟେସନ ତ‌ଥା ଉତ୍ତାପ ଓ ସ୍ୱାଭାବିକ ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନଶୀଳତାର ପରିସୀମାକୁ ନେଇ ଜଳବାୟୁର ବର୍ଗୀକରଣ କରାଯାଏ । ସାଧାରଣରେ ବ୍ୟବ‌ହୃତ ବର୍ଗୀକରଣ ସ୍କିମକୁ କୋପାନ କ୍ଲାଇମେଟ କ୍ଲାସିଫିକେସନ ([[:en:Köppen climate classification|Köppen climate classification]]) କୁହାଯାଏ ।<ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.2307/210739|url=http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/geog/801/001/www/ET/Thornthwaite48-GeogrRev.pdf|author=C. W. Thornthwaite|title=An Approach Toward a Rational Classification of Climate|journal=Geographical Review|volume=38|issue=1|pages=55–94|year=1948|jstor=210739}}</ref> ଯାହା ସନ ୧୯୪୮ରୁ ବ୍ୟବ‌ହାର ହେଉଥିବା ଏଭାପୋଟ୍ରାନ୍ସପିରେସନ ସ‌ହିତ ଯେଉଁଥିରେ ଉତ୍ତାପ ଓ ପ୍ରେସିପିଟେସନ ଖବର ନିଆଯାଇ ବାୟୋଲୋଜିକାଲ ଡାଇଭରସିଟି ଓ କିପରି ଜଳବାୟୁ ପରିବର୍ତ୍ତନ ପ୍ରଭାବିତ କରୁଛି, ତାହା ଅନୁଶୀଳନ କରାଯାଏ । ବର୍ଗେରନ ଓ ସ୍ପାସିଆଲ ସିନୋପ୍ଟିକ କ୍ଲାସିଫିକେସନ ସିସ୍ଟମରେ ବାୟୁ ପିଣ୍ଡର ମୂଳ ଉତ୍ସ ଉପରେ କେନ୍ଦ୍ରୀଭୁତ କରାଯାଇ ବର୍ଗୀକରଣ କରାଯାଏ ।
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[[Paleoclimatology]] is the study of ancient climates. Since very few direct observations of climate are available before the 19th century, paleoclimates are inferred from [[Proxy (climate)|proxy variables]] that include non-biotic evidence such as sediments found in [[lake beds]] and [[ice core]]s, and biotic evidence such as [[Dendrochronology|tree rings]] and coral. [[Climate model]]s are mathematical models of past, present and future climates. Climate change may occur over long and short timescales from a variety of factors; recent warming is discussed in [[global warming]]. Global warming results in redistributions. For example, "a 3{{formatnum:}}°C change in mean annual temperature corresponds to a shift in isotherms of approximately 300–400 km in latitude (in the temperate zone) or 500 m in elevation. Therefore, species are expected to move upwards in elevation or towards the poles in latitude in response to shifting climate zones".<ref>{{Cite book|title=Biological consequences of globalwarming: is the signal already|last=Hughes|first=Lesley|publisher=|year=2000|isbn=|location=|pages=56|quote=|via=}}</ref><ref name="TIEE-20000201">{{cite journal |last=Hughes |first=Leslie |title=Biological consequences of global warming: is the signal already apparent? |url=http://www.cell.com/trends/ecology-evolution/abstract/S0169-5347(99)01764-4 |date=1 February 2000 |journal=[[Trends in Ecology and Evolution]] |volume=15 |issue=2 |pages=56–61 |doi=10.1016/S0169-5347(99)01764-4 |accessdate=November 17, 2016 }}</ref>
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