"ଗୋଆ" ପୃଷ୍ଠାର ସଂସ୍କରଣ‌ଗୁଡ଼ିକ ମଧ୍ୟରେ ତଫାତ

୫,୦୧୩ ବାଇଟଗୁଡିକ ଯୋଡାଗଲା ,  ୪ ବର୍ଷ ପୂର୍ବେ
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'ଗୋଆ' [[ଭାରତ]]ର ଦକ୍ଷିଣ-ପଶ୍ଚିମରେ ଅବସ୍ଥିତ ଏକ [[ଭାରତର ରାଜ୍ୟ|ରାଜ୍ୟ]] । କ୍ଷେତ୍ରଫଳ ହିସାବରେ ଏହା [[ଭାରତ]]ର କ୍ଷୁଦ୍ରତମ ତଥା ଜନସଂଖ୍ୟା ହିସାବରେ ଏହା [[ଭାରତ]]ର ଚତୁର୍ଥ କ୍ଷୁଦ୍ର [[ଭାରତର ରାଜ୍ୟ|ରାଜ୍ୟ]] । ଆରବ ସାଗର କୁଳରେ ଥିବା ଏହି [[ଭାରତର ରାଜ୍ୟ|ରାଜ୍ୟ]]କୁ ଉତ୍ତରଦିଗରେ [[ମହାରାଷ୍ଟ୍ର]], ପୂର୍ବ ଓ ଦକ୍ଷିଣ ଦିଗରେ [[କର୍ଣ୍ଣାଟକ]] ଘେରି ରହିଛି । ଗୋଆ ଭାରତର ସବୁଠାରୁ ଧନୀ [[ଭାରତର ରାଜ୍ୟ|ରାଜ୍ୟ]] । ଏହାର ମୋଟ ଘରୋଇ ଉତ୍ପାଦ (ଜି. ଡ଼ି. ପି.) ଦେଶର ଜି. ଡ଼ି. ପି.ର ଅଢେଇଗୁଣ ଅଧିକ। । ୧୧ଶ ବିତ୍ତ କମିଶନ ଗୋଆକୁ ଭିତ୍ତିଭୂମି ପାଇଁ ସବୁଠୁ ଭଲ [[ଭାରତର ରାଜ୍ୟ|ରାଜ୍ୟ]] ଭାବେ ଗଣନା କରିଛନ୍ତି । [[ପାଣାଜୀ|ପାନାଜି ବା ପାଞ୍ଜିମ]] ଗୋଆର ରାଜଧାନୀ ଆଟେ । ପ୍ରାୟ ୪୫୦ବର୍ଷ ଧରି ଗୋଆ ପର୍ତ୍ତୁଗୀଜ କଲୋନୀ ରହି ଆସିଥିଲା । ୧୯୬୧ ମସିହାରେ ଏହା [[ଭାରତ]]ବର୍ଷ ସାଙ୍ଗରେ ଯୋଗ କରାଗଲା । ଗୋଆ ରାଜ୍ୟ ଏହାର ବେଳାଭୂମି, ବିଶ୍ଵବିଖ୍ୟାତ ଗୀର୍ଜାଘର, ଭରପୁର ଖଣିଜ ପଦାର୍ଥ ଓ ସବୁଜ ପଶ୍ଚିମଘାଟ ପର୍ବତ ମାଳା ପାଇଁ ପ୍ରସିଦ୍ଧ ଅଟେ ।
== ଭୂଗୋଳ ==
== ଇତିହାସ ==
[[File:Usgalimal.PNG|thumb|ଉସ୍‌ଗାଲିମାଲ୍‌ଠାରେ ଅବସ୍ଥିତ ପଥର ଖୋଦେଇ ଚିତ୍ର]]
ଗୋଆର ଇତିହାସ ୨୦,୦୦୦ ରୁ ୩୦,୦୦୦ ବର୍ଷ ପୁରୁଣା । ଏହି ପଥର ଖୋଦେଇ ଭାରତରେ ପ୍ରାଚୀନ ମାନବ ସଭ୍ୟତାର ଚିହ୍ନ ବହନ କରେ ।<ref>{{cite book|last=Indian Archaeological Society|title=Purātattva, Issue 36|year=2006|publisher=Indian Archaeological Society}}</ref>{{rp|p.254}} [[Upper Paleolithic]] କିମ୍ବା [[Mesolithic]] ପଥର ଖୋଦେଇ ଚିତ୍ର, ଉସ୍‌ଗାଲିମାଲ୍‌ଠାରେ [[Kushavati]] ନଦୀ ତଟରେ ମିଳିଥିଲା ।<ref name=usgal>{{cite book|last=Kalyan Kumar Chakravarty, Robert G. Bednarik, Indirā Gāndhī Rāshṭrīya Mānava Saṅgrahālaya|title=Indian Rock Art and Its Global Context|year=1997|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass Publ.,|isbn= 9788120814646|pages=228 pages (see page 34)}}</ref> [[Petroglyph]]s, cones, stone-axe, and choppers dating to 10,000 years ago have been found in many places in Goa, such as Kazur, Mauxim, and the [[Mandovi]]-[[Zuari]] basin.<ref name=axe>{{cite book|author1=C. R. Srinivasan |author2=K. V. Ramesh |author3=S. Subramonia Iyer |title=Śrī puṣpāñjali: Recent Researches in Prehistory, Protohistory, Art, Architecture, Numismatics, Iconography, and Epigraphy: Dr. C.R. Srinivasan commemoration volume, Volume 1|year=2004|publisher=Bharatiya Kala Prakashan,|isbn= 9788180900563|pages=469 pages (see page4)}}</ref> Evidence of [[Paleolithic|Palaeolithic]] life is seen at Dabolim, Adkon, Shigao, Fatorpa, Arli, Maulinguinim, Diwar, Sanguem, Pilerne, and Aquem-Margaon etc. Difficulty in carbon dating the laterite rock compounds poses a problem for determining the exact time period.<ref name=NIO>{{cite web|last=Sakhardande|first=Prajal|title=7th National Conference on Marine Archaeology of Indian Ocean Countries: Session V|url=http://www.nio.org/index.php?option=com_eventdisplay&task=view&tid=4&eid=32|work=Heritage and history of Goa|publisher=NIO Goa|accessdate=30 March 2011}}</ref>
[[File:Kadamba.PNG|left|thumb|Gold coins issued by the Kadamba king of Goa, Shivachitta Paramadideva. ''Circa'' 1147–1187 AD.]]
Early Goan society underwent radical change when [[Indo-Aryan peoples|Indo-Aryan]] and [[Dravidian people|Dravidian]] migrants amalgamated with the aboriginal locals, forming the base of early Goan culture.<ref name=dhume2>{{cite book|last=Dhume|first=Anant Ramkrishna|title=The cultural history of Goa from 10000 BC - 1352 AD|year=1986|publisher=Ramesh Anant S. Dhume|pages=355 pages (see pages 100–150)}}</ref>
 
In the 3rd century BC, Goa was part of the [[Maurya Empire]], ruled by the Buddhist emperor, [[Ashoka]] of [[Magadha]]. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism in Goa. Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th century AD, Goa was ruled by the [[Bhojas of Goa]]. [[Chutu]]s of [[Karwar]] also ruled some parts as feudatories of the [[Satavahana]]s of [[Kolhapur]] (2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD), [[Western Kshatrapas]] (around 150 AD), the [[Abhira]]s of Western Maharashtra, Bhojas of the [[Yadav caste|Yadav]] clans of [[Gujarat]], and the Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the [[Kalachuri]]s.<ref>{{harvnb|De Souza|1990|p=[https://books.google.com/books?id=dwYDPnEjTb4C&pg=PA9&dq=bhojas+goa&lr=#v=onepage&q=bhojas%20goa&f=false 9]}}</ref> The rule later passed to the Chalukyas of [[Badami]], who controlled it between 578 and 753, and later the [[Rashtrakuta]]s of [[Malkhed]] from 753 to 963. From 765 to 1015, the Southern [[Silhara]]s of [[Konkan]] ruled Goa as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas.<ref>{{harvnb|De Souza|1990|p=[https://books.google.com/books?id=dwYDPnEjTb4C&pg=PA10&dq=bhojas+goa&lr=#v=onepage&q=bhojas%20goa&f=false 10]}}</ref> Over the next few centuries, Goa was successively ruled by the [[Kadamba Dynasty|Kadamba]]s as the feudatories of the [[Western Chalukya Empire|Chalukyas of Kalyani]]. They patronised Jainism in Goa.<ref>{{harvnb|De Souza|1990|p=[https://books.google.com/books?id=dwYDPnEjTb4C&pg=PA11&dq=bhojas+goa&lr=#v=onepage&q=bhojas%20goa&f=false 11]}}</ref>
 
In 1312, Goa came under the governance of the [[Delhi Sultanate]]. The kingdom's grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 it was forced to surrender it to [[Harihara I]] of the [[Vijayanagara empire]]. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the [[Bahmani Sultanate|Bahmani sultans]] of [[Gulbarga]]. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell into the hands of the [[Adil Shahi]]s of [[Bijapur Sultanate|Bijapur]], who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese as [[Velha Goa]] (or Old Goa).<ref name=dobbie>{{cite book|last=Dobbie|first=Aline|title=India: The Elephant's Blessing|year=2006|publisher=Melrose Press|pages=253 pages (see page 220)}}</ref>
 
== ଭାଷା ଓ ସାହିତ୍ୟ ==
==ଆଧାର==