ଉଦଜାନ (ଇଂରାଜୀ: Hydrogen; ହାଇଡ୍ରୋଜେନ୍) ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ ଓ ଏହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ H, ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୧, ପରମାଣବିକ ବସ୍ତୁତ୍ୱ ୧.୦୦୭ ୯୪ amu । ଉଦଜାନ ସବୁଠାରୁ ହାଲୁକା ମୌଳିକ ଓ ଏହାର ଏକ-ପରମାଣବିକ ଅବସ୍ଥା ବିଶ୍ୱର ସବୁଠାରୁ ପ୍ରଚୁର ପରିମାଣରେ ମିଳୁଥିବା ମୌଳିକ ଅଟେ (ପାଖାପାଖି ୭୫% ପ୍ରତିଶତ) ।[ଟୀକା ୧]
Purple glow in its plasma state
Spectral lines of hydrogen
|ନାମ, ପ୍ରତୀକ||hydrogen, H|
|Hydrogen in the periodic table|
|ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ (Z)||1|
|ଶ୍ରେଣୀ, ବ୍ଳକ||group 1, s-block|
|ମାନକ ପରମାଣବିକ ଓଜନ (±) (Ar)||1.008(1)|
|ଗଳନାଙ୍କ||14.01 K (-259.14 °C, -434.45 °F)|
|ସ୍ଫୁଟନାଙ୍କ||20.28 K (-252.87 °C, -423.17 °F)|
|ଘନତା at stp (0 °C and 101.325 kPa)||0.08988 g/L|
|when liquid, at m.p.||0.07 (0.0763 solid) g/cm3|
|when liquid, at b.p.||0.07099 g/cm3|
|Triple point||13.8033 K, 7.042 kPa|
|Critical point||32.97 K, 1.293 MPa|
|Heat of fusion||(H2) 0.117 kJ/mol|
|Heat of||(H2) 0.904 kJ/mol|
|Molar heat capacity||(H2) 28.836 J/(mol·K)|
|Oxidation states||1, -1 amphoteric oxide|
|Electronegativity||Pauling scale: 2.20|
|Covalent radius||31±5 pm|
|Van der Waals radius||120 pm|
|Speed of sound||(gas, 27 °C) 1310 m/s|
|Thermal conductivity||0.1805 W/(m·K)|
|ଆବିଷ୍କାର||Henry Cavendish (1766)|
|Named by||Antoine Lavoisier (1783)|
|Most stable isotopes of hydrogen|
- Simpson, J.A.; Weiner, E.S.C. (1989). "Hydrogen". Oxford English Dictionary. 7 (2nd ed.). Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-861219-2.
- Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils; Holleman, Arnold Frederick (2001). Inorganic chemistry. Academic Press. p. 240. ISBN 0123526515.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". [[CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]] (PDF) (81st ed.). CRC Press. URL–wikilink conflict (help)
- "Hydrogen". Van Nostrand's Encyclopedia of Chemistry. Wylie-Interscience. 2005. pp. 797–799. ISBN 0-471-61525-0.
- Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 183–191. ISBN 0-19-850341-5.
- Stwertka, Albert (1996). A Guide to the Elements. Oxford University Press. pp. 16–21. ISBN 0-19-508083-1.
- Palmer, D. (13 September 1997). "Hydrogen in the Universe". NASA. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
freshney.org periodic table
Sources Found chiefly combined with oxygen in the form of water, also found in mines and oil and gas wells. Stars contain a virtually unlimited supply of hydrogen and in the universe, hydrogen is the most abundant element (hydrogen makes up 75% of the mass of the visible universe and over 90% by number of atoms.). Annual world production of hydrogen is around 350 billion cubic metres.
Universe: 7.5 x 105 ppm (by weight) Sun: 7.5 x 105 ppm (by weight) Carbonaceous meteorite: 24000 ppm Earth's Crust: 1500 ppm Seawater: 107800 ppm Human: 1 x 108 ppb by weight 6.2 x 108 ppb by atoms
Uses Hydrogen's uses include: being used in the production of ammonia (NH3), ethanol (C2H5OH), hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen bromide (HBr); the hydrogenation of vegetable oils; hydrocracking, hydroforming and hydrofining of petroleum; atomic-hydrogen welding; instrument-carrying balloons; fuel in rockets; and cryogenic research. Its two heavier isotopes, deuterium (D) and tritium (T), are used respectively for nuclear fission and fusion. Hydrogen fuel cells are being investigated as mobile power sources with lower emissions than hydrogen-burning internal combustion engines. The low emissions of hydrogen in internal combustion engines and fuel cells are currently offset by the pollution created by hydrogen production. This may change if the substantial amounts of electricity required for water electrolysis can be generated primarily from low pollution sources such as solar energy or wind. Research is being conducted on H2 as a replacement for fossil fuels.
History Hydrogen gas, H2, was first artificially produced and formally described by T. Von Hohenheim (also known as Paracelsus, 1493 - 1541) via the mixing of metals with strong acids. He was unaware that the flammable gas produced by this chemical reaction was a new chemical element. In 1671, Robert Boyle rediscovered and described the reaction between iron filings and dilute acids, which results in the production of hydrogen gas. In 1766, Henry Cavendish was the first to recognize hydrogen gas as a discrete substance, by identifying the gas from a metal-acid reaction as "inflammable air" and further finding that the gas produces water when burned. Cavendish had stumbled on hydrogen when experimenting with acids and mercury. Although he wrongly assumed that hydrogen was a liberated component of the mercury rather than the acid, he was still able to accurately describe several key properties of hydrogen. He is usually given credit for its discovery as an element. In 1783, Antoine Lavoisier gave the element the name of hydrogen when he (with Laplace) reproduced Cavendish's finding that water is produced when hydrogen is burned. Lavoisier's name for the gas won out. One of the first uses of H2 was for balloons, and later airships. The H2 was obtained by reacting sulphuric acid and metallic iron. Infamously, H2 was used in the Hindenburg airship that was destroyed in a midair fire. The highly flammable hydrogen (H2) was later replaced for airships and most balloons by the unreactive helium (He).
Notes At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen exists as the diatomic gas, H2, with a boiling point of 20.27 K, and a melting point of 14.02 K. Under extreme pressures, such as those at the center of gas giants, the molecules lose their identity and the hydrogen becomes a metal (metallic hydrogen). Under the extremely low pressure in space - virtually a vacuum - the element tends to exist as individual atoms, simply because it is statistically unlikely for them to combine. A unique property of hydrogen is that its flame is nearly invisible in air.
Hazards Hydrogen is a tasteless, colourless, odourless and extremely flammable gas, it is also the lightest chemical element.
ଆହୁରି ପଢନ୍ତୁସମ୍ପାଦନ କରନ୍ତୁ
- Chart of the Nuclides (17th ed.). Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory. 2010. ISBN 978-0-9843653-0-2.
- Ferreira-Aparicio, P (2005). "New Trends in Reforming Technologies: from Hydrogen Industrial Plants to Multifuel Microreformers". Catalysis Reviews. 47 (4): 491–588. doi:10.1080/01614940500364958. Unknown parameter
- Newton, David E. (1994). The Chemical Elements. New York: Franklin Watts. ISBN 0-531-12501-7.
- Rigden, John S. (2002). Hydrogen: The Essential Element. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-531-12501-7.
- Romm, Joseph, J. (2004). The Hype about Hydrogen, Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate. Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-703-X.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Author interview at Global Public Media.
- Scerri, Eric (2007). The Periodic System, Its Story and Its Significance,. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530573-6.
ବାହାର ଲିଙ୍କସମ୍ପାଦନ କରନ୍ତୁ
- Basic Hydrogen Calculations of Quantum Mechanics
- Hydrogen at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham)
- High temperature hydrogen phase diagram
- Wavefunction of hydrogen
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